Polyethylenes are a family of thermoplastic polymers (thermoplastics) that make up the largest share of plastic consumption in the world. One of the largest uses is in the production of pipes. , Easy to transport due to its relatively low weight, quick and easy installation, impact resistance, abrasion resistance, excellent chemical resistance, excellent fluid flow inside the tube, convenient connectivity, very flexible High and having varied connections. That’s why the use of these pipes is increasing day by day. One of the most important factors in replacing steel pipes with polyethylene pipes is their permeability to chemicals. Better tolerance to organic and inorganic chemicals than metals that affect their performance. Various factors affect the quality of polyethylene pipes, the most important of which are: : Resin type – Additive (amount and uniformity of addition) – Tightening Producer (such as glass fiber reinforced polyethylene) – Production process: This part of the production depends heavily on machinery and technical personnel skills – Environmental factor: Application of polyethylene pipe (water pipe or sewage and even for what kind of water consumption) Industrial or ..) – UV Beam: Specific Applications (Radioactive Waves – Magnetic Waves) – Microbiological Effects – Stress Factor: Temperature (set in standard PE life assuming a temperature of 20 ° 50 ° C where temperature is 20 ° C). The degree of life of the PE will vary. Temperature is the temperature of the fluid, not the environment. If the PE pipe is on the ground, the fluid is the same as the environment, but if the underground is the fluid, the temperature is lower than the environment. – Static charge: or dead load (the tube beneath the soil is pressurized as much as the weight of the soil. If the pipe is also under fluid pressure, the two pressures will partially offset the effect otherwise the pipe Damage) – Bardynamic: or traffic load (if the pipe crosses the path that the car travels, the higher the pressure, This pressure will be difficult for sewage pipes that do not have fluid pressure. Will be difficult).
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Types of polyethylene pipes
Polyethylene pipes can be classified into several general categories: • Single wall polyethylene pipe • Double walled polyethylene pipe • Irrigation pipe • PEX • PERT.
Single-walled polyethylene pipe: Single-walled polyethylene pipe is one of the polymer tubes that can be used at pressures between 2 and 40 bar with different diameters. This product has been used in transmission and distribution networks for water and gas more than any other. As in the last fifty years, the industry has made progress in the production of polyethylene pipes and fittings. Has been proposed as a suitable replacement for steel pipes, PVC, GRP and cast iron and has been able to In cases such as replacing pipes raised his generation. These tubes are classified in categories Aatyln pipes PE 40,32, 80, 100, respectively. The characteristic number listed in these polyethylene grades is the type of MRS that is said to be the minimum internal pressure resistance required after fifty years of operation at a fluid temperature of twenty degrees Celsius. . The minimum internal pressure is reported to be about 8 MPa for PE 80 and about 10 MPa for PE100. Accordingly, many efforts have been made to replace PE100 with PE80 in many countries. The usual values have been measured on the material. These values should not be used for pipe design purposes. Polyethylene is mainly used for buried gas and water lines and for the construction of construction pipes. For this wide range of applications, polyethylene has become the dominant material in various materials in the country. The most important of these features can be mentioned: 1- Polyethylene shows very high impact resistance even at low temperatures . Proper behavior of PE against high shrinkage impact cracking is an important advantage in many applications, for example in areas with high earthquake risk.2- Due to the nonpolar nature of PE as a hydrocarbon, High molecular weight, polyethylene has high resistance to chemical attack. PE has good resistance to acids, alkali. PE is resistant to oxidizing acids, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
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3. If polyethylene is exposed to direct sunlight for a long period of time, like many natural and plastic materials, it will be damaged by the UV wave of sunlight and degraded by the oxidation process with oxygen in the air. Therefore, most polyethylene pipes are resistant to UV light by adding carbon block.4 – Polyethylene pipes can be used in the temperature range from -50 ° C to +60 ° C. At higher temperatures, the tensile strength and hardness of the materials are reduced, and PEs have a linear thermal expansion coefficient of 0.15 to 0.20 mm / m 2, which is 1.5 times higher than PVC as long as this is considered during installation planning. , There is no problem with this. Thermal sensitivity is 0.38 W / m K. Because the insulation properties are achieved, the PE pipe system is significantly cheaper than a metal-like copper system.5- Polyethylene is a flammable plastic. The oxygen index reaches 17%. (Materials with 21% oxygen in air are burned) .6 Due to the low absorption of polyethylene water, its electrical properties are severely affected by continuous water contact. However, these properties can be drastically reduced due to contamination, effects of oxidation media or ambient air. Its specific volumetric resistance is> 1017 Ωcm; the dielectric power is 220 kV / mm.
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UPVC Pipe Production Line
Polyvinyl chloride is formed by polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer. Most of the commercial production of PVC is mainly through suspended polymerization, with less mass and emulsion polymerization and less soluble polymerization. Polyvinyl chloride has a low crystallinity but is strong and hard due to the large polymer chains (as a result of the large chlorine exchange). The TG is high at 2 degrees Celsius, but the TG is not high enough to disrupt the process in many ways. In contrast, heat and light are relatively unstable and hydrogen chloride is released. It has detrimental effects on the properties of the tail (electrical components) in addition to physiological effects. PVC is a hard plastic that is soft and flexible by adding lubricants. The most widely used is phthalate. The two main processes used in manufacturing are: extrusion to produce continuous products such as tubing; molding for separate products such as fittings: The modern U-PVC process requires advanced scientific-industrial methods to precisely control process variables. The polymer material used is a free-flowing powder that requires the addition of various stabilizers and lubricants. For this reason, the choice of formulation and subsequent mixing are two crucial factors in the production process. Make a uniform dry mixture. At this stage, a temperature of about 100 ° C is created by friction and shearing in the mixer. At various stages of the mixing process, the additives are melted and coated onto the surface of the PVC grains. Upon reaching the appropriate temperature, the mixture is automatically transferred to a cooling tank and the temperature is rapidly reduced to about 50 ° C.
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The extruder is one of the most important steps in the pipeline, which has a cylinder with thermally controllable elements in which precise coils / coils rotate. The new extruders are very sophisticated machines that are carefully designed to control the pressure and shear of the material at all stages of the process. Reach. During the passage through the coil, the PVC particles pass through a number of thermal regions that give rise to density, greater uniformity and biting of the melt flow. The last area increases the pressure for the molten material to pass through the mold and is shaped according to the size and characteristics of the desired pipe. When the tube is pulled out of the extruder mold, it reaches the desired size in a calibrator by means of air or vacuum. The length of the calibrator is about three times the diameter of the tube. This length is essential for fixing the diameter of the pipe before the final stage of cooling in a water bath at a controlled temperature. Speed control is very important because it affects the thickness of the finished product wall. A printer marks the tubes at specified intervals by size, type, date, etc., and cuts an automatic saw to the required size. A cobblestone creates a pistil on one end of each pipe branch. There are generally two types of pistil: a pistil for attachment with a rubber gasket and a pistil for adhesive attachment. Finally send to destination.
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PVC pipe (UPVC pipe) is one of the first and most widely used polymer pipes and PVC pipes with different applications were produced and marketed. PVC pipes are hardly damaged and long life Due to their high resistance to environmental conditions, it quickly gained popularity and was used in many projects for sewage, water supply and fluid transmission. Polycarbonate tubes, with the highest technical and mechanical properties, meet the economic and environmental needs of today’s world. It is thirty that does not leak and can be easily installed. People chose the name Plica for the gray UPVC pipes and the name Plica stayed on that type of pipe. PVC and UPVC pipes L is one of the most widely used types of pipes in buildings and construction projects, the most widely used upvc pipes for wastewater transmission. Various types of silent pipes (silent pipes) are also produced and marketed. Upvc Pipe Uses: – Household Wastewater Transfer – Urban and Industrial Applications – Pressure Water Supply Networks – Power and Power Cables Coverage – Telecommunication cable coverage. Upvc tubes in threaded, threaded, threaded models, Adhesives and welds are produced, each of which is used according to its application. Mostly, upvc pipes are used for conveying non-pressurized or low pressurized fluids, and these joints use common connections, but for high-pressure fluids welding joints must be used. U-pvc pipes Today, they are not only used in buildings and are highly trusted in drainage applications and most of the pipes and drainage equipment are upvc pipes.
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Double wall polyethylene pipes (karogite)
High density polyethylene (HDPE) is a versatile material and has some of the ideal properties for use in underground structures. The HDPE pipe is relatively lightweight and makes shipping and installation costs easier and cheaper. These pipes are not fragile and therefore are not sensitive during pipe operation and installation. After forming the pipe, HDPE has a smooth surface, resistant to abrasion, corrosion and chemical washing. HDPE pipeline flow characteristics are strong in structure and capable of supporting large loads. PEG is an excellent choice for gravitational flow or short-span piping conditions. Structural stability of PEG with three The pipe design is obtained. According to AASHTO M294, these designs are defined as follows: Type C – This tube must have a fully circular cross-section and a carogitic ring surface both inside and outside. The D-tube is a circular cross-section consisting of a necessarily smooth inner wall that is attached to a necessarily smooth outer wall having circular or spiral connecting elements.
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Polyka pipes, also known as PVC pipes, are a unique invention in water and wastewater treatment plants. The materials of Polka Pipe are designed to be environmentally friendly and can provide safety in buildings. Plica Pipe Types: Plica pipes are manufactured in several types and provided to our clients as needed. Types of these pipes are: ordinary polychrome (low pressure) pipe. Semi-strong polychaet tube. High pressure polychaete tube. Granule Pipe Applications of Polka Pipes: High pressure polka pipes are used for sewage pipelines in industrial plants as well as for insulating power cables. Semi-strong polyka pipes are also used for sewage pipelines in buildings and residential areas. Ordinary or low pressure pipes are also used for air conditioning and air conditioning systems. These pipes are generally used for irrigation, agricultural irrigation, air conditioning, drainage and urban and industrial sewer lines. Because of the many benefits they have today, Plika is used in residential and industrial applications and is environmentally friendly. The general benefits of these pipes are as follows: Low weight. Easy and safe installation. Easy transportation due to their resistance and low weight. High resistance to acids and bases and corrosive chemicals due to their high quality constituents. Appropriate resistance to rust. Resistance to impacts and mechanical forces due to the dry polymers of polycarbonate pipes
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The two main processes used in PVC pipe manufacturing are extrusion to produce continuous products such as PVC pipe, and molding for separate products such as joints.
The extruder as the heart of the PVC pipe manufacturing process has a cylinder with thermally controllable elements in which the precise spirals are rotated. The PVC polymer consists of 43% hydrocarbon and 57% chlorine and is obtained by polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer. , This monomer is obtained by direct chlorination of ethylene using a catalyst and then pyrolysis of ethylene dichloride resulting in a heat-breaking unit based on petroleum or natural gas hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane or butane. U-PVC tubes ( UVC) is produced by the compressive and thermal process of raw PVC powder. The two main processes used in PVC pipe manufacturing are extrusion to produce continuous products such as PVC pipe, and molding for individual products such as fittings. Precision spirals are rotated. MPVC (MPVC) is an optimally modified polyvinyl chloride polymer that, with the addition of a modifier, results in the production of tubes with high mechanical properties such as hardness and toughness.
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13mm irrigation pipe
These pipes have high impact resistance and are widely used in industrial applications with high pressure and water purification. The wall thickness of these pipes is less than UPVC and ensures that less material is used during the manufacturing process and Eventually, it results in a lighter product. So it leaves at least carbon footprint. The substance called UPVC (UPS) refers to soft (hard) polyvinyl chloride. If the U-PVC mark is used for a compound, it means that no softener is used in its formulation. In the production process, the tube is extruded with a thick wall (feed) and stabilized at the desired temperature. The molding process is activated in environmental and axial directions under controlled conditions. Following the molding process, the tube cools rapidly to ambient temperature. This arrangement improves the physical and mechanical properties of the pipes. Reducing wall thickness can also save materials and energy. These pipes are 35% lighter and easier to transport than conventional PVC pipes. In some cases it is also shown with PVC-P (PVC). In these mixtures a considerable amount of softener is used, to the extent that the resulting product is soft and flexible. Are able to withstand higher temperatures. These tubes are more resistant to algae and bacteria due to their higher chlorine content.